Expert advice

TER provides evidence-based answers to questions clients have in relation to transport and environment.

TER conducts research and provides independent consultancy and tool development services
regarding greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from transport.

TER offers the following services:

  • model development and tools (scroll down for details)

  • estimation of transport emissions, fuel consumption and energy use
  • simulation of on-road fleet mix (past, present, future)
  • policy impact assessment
  • (empirical) data analysis and presentation, including statistical analysis

  • literature review and research

  • emission forecasting

  • emission factors and scaling factors


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Software tool


PΔP = Power-Delta-Power

PΔP is an innovative approach to predict motor vehicle energy use, fuel consumption, air pollutant emissions and greenhouse gas emissions at a high resolution (1 Hz).

The PΔP software is a vehicle emissions impact assessment tool.

PΔP quantifies the impacts of traffic and operational conditions on energy use (electric vehicles) and emissions, including, but not limited to:

  • congestion

  • signals/roundabouts

  • signal settings (actuated, coordination)

  • variable speed limits

  • road gradient

  • route optimisation

  • vehicle loading

  • logistics optimisation

  • connected and autonomous vehicles

  • tunnel design (air flow, road-gradient effects).



Software tool

AFM = Australian Fleet model


Vehicle emission simulation requires a high level of detail of the on-road fleet to account for the various engine, emission control and vehicle design factors that impact on vehicle emissions, energy use and fuel consumption.


The fleet model estimates total travel (vehicle kilometers traveled, accumulated mileage) for 40 vehicle classes and 31 vintage/age categories (i.e. 1,240 model classes) for individual base years (e.g. 2010-2050).


The software can output the modelling results in specific predefined formats, including COPERT Australia.